The Classical Flute
A new and more brilliant style of flute-playing appeared
after about 1750 as the concerto and the symphony became
the most popular musical forms. Instrument makers in
London first added keys to the baroque flute and increased
its bore taper, both with the aim of strengthening the
instrument's low register, in the late 1750s. The new
keyed flute was adopted by a few leading English players
but did not become popular in continental Europe for
another 30 years or more.
The flute virtuoso J.G.
Tromlitz did much to introduce the keyed flute in
Germany, in a version he designed himself: his playing
was noted as brilliant, trumpet-like, and perfectly
in tune. By about 1800 nearly all professional players
used keyed flutes, of which quite different types were
made in England, Germany, France, and other places.
Continuing travel by solo flutists brought their different
performing and composition styles to all parts of Europe,
and the most famous of them were thought of as great
artists for the first time.
Chapter 6, 'The Classical flute', of Ardal Powell's
The Flute (Yale University
Press, 2002) contains more information on this topic.